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Passage 1

  Educating girls quite possibly yields a higher rate of return than any other investment available in the developing world. Women’s education may be unusual territory for economists, but enhancing women’s contribution to development is actually as much an economic as a social issue. And economics, with its emphasis on incentives (激励), provides guideposts that point to an explanation for why so many girls are deprived of an education.
  Parents in low-income countries fail to invest in their daughters because they do not expect them to make an economic contribution to the family: girls grow up only to marry into somebody else’s family and bear children. Girls are thus seen as less valuable than boys and art kept at home to do housework while their brothers are sent to school-the prophecy (预言) becomes self-fulfilling, trapping women in a vicious circle (恶性循环) of neglect.
  An educated mother, on the other hand, has greater earning abilities outside the home and faces an entirely different set of choices. She is likely to have fewer but healthier children and can insist on the development of all her children, ensuring that her daughters are given a fair chance. The education of her daughters then makes it much more likely that the next generation of girls, as well as of boys, will be educated and healthy. The vicious circle is thus transformed into a virtuous circle.
  Few will dispute that educating women has great social benefits. But it has enormous economic advantages as well. Most obviously, there is the direct effect of education on the wages of female workers. Wages rise by 10 to 20 per cent for each additional year of schooling. Such big returns are impressive by the standard of other available investments, but they are just the beginning. Educating women also has a significant impact on health practices, including family planning.

  1.investment n.投资
  2.economist n.经济学家
  3.economics n.经济学
  4.transform vt.转换
  5.significant a.意义重大的
  6.make contribution to...为....做贡献
  7.available a.有用的,可获得的
  8.enhance vt.增强,提高
  9.emphasis n.强调
  10.dispute n.争论
  11.be deprived of sth 被剥夺享受...的权利
  12.insist on坚持....
1 . The author argues that educating girls in developing countries is ________.
A troublesome
B labor-saving
C rewarding
D rewarding
2 . By saying “... the prophecy becomes self-fulfilling...” (Lines 45, Para. 2). the author means that ________.
A girls will turn out to be less valuable than boys
B girls will be capable of realizing their own dreams
C girls will eventually find their goals in life beyond reach
D girls will be increasingly discontented with their life at home
3 . The author believes that a vicious circle can turn into a virtuous circle when ________.
A women care more about education
B girls can gain equal access to education
C a family has fewer but healthier children
D parents can afford their daughters’ education
4 . What does the author say about women’s education?
A It deserves greater attention than other social issues.
B It is now given top priority in many developing countries.
C It will yield greater returns than other known investments.
D It has aroused the interest of a growing number of economists.
5 . The passage mainly discusses ________.
A unequal treatment of boys and girls in developing countries
B the potential earning power of well-educated women
C the major contributions of educated women to society
D the economic and social benefits of educating women

Passage 2

  When Archaeopteryx, a feathered skeleton that was seemingly half dinosaur and half bird, turned up in 1862—three years after the publication of “The Origin of Species”—the origin of birds became a subject of raging debate among paleontologists. Suggestions that they were the direct descendants of theropod dinosaurs (a group of bipedal meat-eaters that include Allosaurus, Velociraptor and Tyrannosaurus) caused quite a flap. Today, most researchers agree that birds are, indeed, a branch of the Dinosaurian. How they made the transition from the land to the sky, though, has yet to be agreed. But a paper in this week's Current Biology, by Christopher Glen and Michael Bennett of the University of Queensland, makes a strong case that they did it by jumping.
  Considering the diversity of life on Earth, flight is surprisingly rare. It has evolved only four times: among the insects about 300m years ago, the pterosaurs (230m), the birds (150m) and the bats (50m). That suggests it is a hard trick to pull off. For birds, there is general agreement that feathers came before flight. Fossils from north-eastern China show animals that had feathers but clearly could not have flown, as well as ones that look like proper birds. The best guesses are that feathers evolved either for insulation (as fur did in mammals) or for display, and that natural selection took advantage by turning them into a means of transport.
  There are two broad schools of thought about what happened next. One argues that birds' immediate ancestors lived in trees. Members of this school think that powered flight developed as a natural extension of gliding (such controlled falling is used as a way of travelling from tree to tree by several arboreal species today). Gliding itself developed because of the lift provided by feathered forearms.
  The alternative is that flight evolved on the ground. Some researchers who belong to this school of thought suggest that the power provided by flapping protowings may have given their owners an edge in the pursuit of prey. Others hypothesize that feathery forearms helped animals steer and stabilize themselves.
  Unfortunately, behavior does not fossilize, so it looked as though the question might never be answered. But Dr Glen, a palaeobiologist, and Dr Bennett, a biomechanic, think they have worked out how to do so. Their crucial observation is that in modern birds the curvature of the third toe (which carries a lot of weight during walking and climbing) varies with species' lifestyles. Birds that spend lots of time climbing around on the trunks of trees have dramatically curved third toes. Those that hop around on branches have mildly curved ones. Those that forage mainly on the ground have the least curved of all.
  The two researchers compared these observations with their findings for the bird-like dinosaurs and dinosaur-like birds of China. They noticed that the toes of both feathered dinosaurs and of the earliest flying birds were similar to those of modern birds that spend most of their time on the ground. Flight, in other words, came before birds took to the trees. They are not fallen angels, but risen reptiles.
6 . Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the current debate on the origin of birds?
A The opinion that birds were the direct descendants of dinosaurs gives the world a shock.
B Paleontologists have get consensus on the specie’s transition from the land to the sky.
C Paleontologists have different opinions on the process of the transition.
D The paper in this week's Current Biology demonstrates that the specie moved by hopping before they flied.
7 . The reason why flight is surprisingly rare is that _____.
A life on earth is diversified.
B many species of this kind were eliminated during evolution.
C feathers evolved not for a means of transport.
D it is very hard to have such evolution.
8 . The two schools of thought have different opinions on _____.
A the functions of feathered forearams in transition from ground to sky.
B the location of living place before the animals’ evolution to birds.
C the development of powered flight.
D the power provided by either gliding or flapping.
9 . The conclusion of the study carried out by Dr. Glen and Dr. Bennet is that_____.
A powered flight developed as feathered forearms provided lift.
B flight evolved on the ground before they descend on the trees.
C earliest birds share similar toes with their modern counterparts.
D earliest flying birds evolved from feathered dinosaurs.
10 . Which one of the following statements is NOT true of opinions of Dr. Glen and Dr. Bennet?
A Birds realized the transition from reptile to flight by jumping.
B Dinosaurs are, as a matter of fact, the direct ancestor of birds.
C Feathers evolve not for the purpose of flight.
D Bird’s behaviors are indeed fossilized by their various shape of the third toe.

Passage 3

  Our culture has caused most Americans to assume not only that our language is universal but that the gestures we use are understood by everyone. We do not realize that waving good-bye is the way to summon a person from the Philippines to one's side, or that in Italy and some Latin-American countries, curling the finger to oneself is a sign of farewell.
  Those private citizens who sent packages to our troops occupying Germany after World War II and marked them GIFT to escape duty payments did not bother to find out that "Gift" means poison in German. Moreover, we like to think of ourselves as friendly, yet we prefer to be at least 3 feet or an arm's length away from others. Latins and Middle Easterners like to come closer and touch, which makes Americans uncomfortable.
  Our linguistic (语言上的) and cultural blindness and the casualness with which we take notice of the developed tastes, gestures, customs and languages of other countries, are losing us friends, business and respect in the world.
  Even here in the United States, we make few concessions to the needs of foreign visitors. There are no information signs in four languages on our public buildings or monuments; we do not have multilingual (多语言的)guided tours. Very few restaurant menus have translations, and multilingual waiters, bank clerks and policemen are rare. Our transportation systems have maps in English only and often we ourselves have difficulty understanding them.
  When we go abroad, we tend to cluster in hotels and restaurants where English is spoken. Then attitudes and information we pick up are conditioned by those natives — usually the richer — who speak English. Our business dealings, as well as the nation's diplomacy, are conducted through interpreters.
  For many years, American dollars no longer buy all good things, and we are slowly beginning to realize that our proper role in the world is changing. A 1979 Harris poll reported that 55 percent of Americans want this country to play a more significant role in world affairs; we want to have a hand in the important decisions of the next century, even though it may not always be the upper hand.
11 . It can be inferred that Americans being approached too closely by Middle Easterners would most probably ________.
A stand still
B jump aside
C step forward
D draw back
12 . The author gives many examples to criticize Americans for their ________.
A cultural self-centeredness
B casual manners
C indifference towards foreign visitors
D arrogance towards other cultures
13 . In countries other than their own most Americans ________.
A are isolated by the local people
B are not well informed due to the language barrier
C tend to get along well with the natives
D need interpreters in hotels and restaurants
14 . According to the author, Americans’ cultural blindness and linguistic ignorance will ________.
A affect their image in the new era
B cut themselves off from the outside world
C limit their role in world affairs
D weaken the position of the US dollar
15 . The author’s intention in writing this article is to make Americans realize that ________.
A it is dangerous to ignore their foreign friends
B it is important to maintain their leading role in world affairs
C it is necessary to use several languages in public places
D it is time to get acquainted with other cultures
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Passage 2
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