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Passage 1

 “Humans should not try to avoid stress any more than they would shun food, love or exercise.” Said Dr. Hans Selye, the first physician to document the effects of stress on the body. While here’s on question that continuous stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which you’re able to rise to the occasion can be good for you.
  In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they stress that you can manage also boost immune (免疫的) function. In a study at the Academic Center for Dentistry in Amsterdam, researchers put volunteers through two stressful experiences. In the first, a timed task that required memorizing a list followed by a short test, subjects through a gory (血淋淋的) video on surgical procedures. Those who did well on the memory test had an increase in levels of immunoglobulin A, an antibody that’s the body’s first line of defense against germs. The video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody.
  Stress prompts the body to produce certain stress hormones. In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect, including improved memory function. “They can help nerve cells handle information and put it into storage,” says Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University in New York. But in the long run these hormones can have a harmful effect on the body and brain.
  “Sustained stress is not good for you,” says Richard Morimoto, a researcher at Northwestern University in Illinois studying the effects of stress on longevity, “It’s the occasional burst of stress or brief exposure to stress that could be protective.”

  1.physician n.医生
  2.occasion n.场合
  3.boost n. vt推进
  4.sustain vt.持续
  5.protective a.保护的
  6.in the long run 从长远来看
  7.document vt.证明
  8.considerable a.相当大的
  9.memorize vt.记忆
  10.exposure n.暴露
  11.cope with 处理,解决
1 . The passage is mainly about ________.
A the benefits of manageable stress
B how to avoid stressful situations
C how to avoid stressful situations
D the effects of stress hormones on memory
2 . The word “shun” (Line 1, Para. 1) most probably means ________.
A cut down on
B stay away from
C run out of
D put up with
3 . We can conclude from the study of the 158 nurses in 2001 that ________.
A people under stress tend to have a poor memory
B people who can’t get their job done experience more stress
C doing challenging work may be good for one’s health
D stress will weaken the body’s defense against germs
4 . In the experiment described in Paragraph 3, the video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody because ________.
A the video was not enjoyable at all
B the outcome was beyond their control
C they knew little about surgical procedures
D they felt no pressure while watching the video
5 . Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University believes that ________.
A a person’s memory is determined by the level of hormones in his body
B stress hormones have lasting positive effects on the brain
C short bursts of stress hormones enhance memory function
D a person’s memory improves with continued experience of stress

Passage 2

  If you want to teach your children how to say sorry, you must be good at saying it yourself, especially to your own children. But how you say it can be quite tricky.
  If you say to your children “I’m sorry I got angry with you, but ...” what follows that “but” can render the apology ineffective: “I had a bad day” or “your noise was giving me a headache” leaves the person who has been injured feeling that he should be apologizing for his bad behavior in expecting an apology.
  Another method by which people appear to apologize without actually doing so is to say “I’m sorry you’re upset”; this suggests that you are somehow at fault for allowing yourself to get upset by what the other person has done.
  Then there is the general, all covering apology, which avoids the necessity of identifying a specific act that was particularly hurtful or insulting, and which the person who is apologizing should promise never to do again. Saying “I’m useless as a parent” does not commit a person to any specific improvement.
  These pseudo-apologies are used by people who believe saying sorry shows weakness, Parents who wish to teach their children to apologize should see it as a sign of strength, and therefore not resort to these pseudo-apologies.
  But even when presented with examples of genuine contrition, children still need help to become a ware of the complexities of saying sorry. A three-year-old might need help in understanding that other children feel pain just as he does, and that hitting a playmate over the head with a heavy toy requires an apology. A six-year-old might need reminding that spoiling other children’s expectations can require an apology. A 12-year-old might need to be shown that raiding the biscuit tin without asking permission is acceptable, but that borrowing a parent’s clothes without permission is not.

  1.apologize vi.道歉(to sb for sth)
  2.specific a.特殊的
  3.weakness n.弱点
  4.complexity n.复杂性
  5.permission n.允许
  6.resort to诉诸于
  7.upset a.心烦意乱的
  8.improvement n.进步,提高
  9.strength n.力量
  10.expectation n.期望
  11.appear to看起来
6 .
If a mother adds “but” to an apology, ________.
A she doesn’t feel that she should have apologized
B she does not realize that the child has been hurt
C the child may find the apology easier to accep
D the child may feel that he owes her an apology
7 . According to the author, saying “I’m sorry you’re upset” most probably means “________”.
A You have good reason to get upset
B I’m aware you’re upset, but I’m not to blame
C I apologize for hurting your feelings
D I’m at fault for making you upset
8 . It is not advisable to use the general, all-covering apology because ________.
A it gets one into the habit of making empty promises
B it may make the other person feel guilty
C it is vague and ineffective
D it is hurtful and insulting
9 . We learn from the last paragraph that in teaching children to say sorry ________.
A the complexities involved should be ignored
B their ages should be taken into account
C parents need to set them a good example
D parents should be patient and tolerant
10 . It can be inferred from the passage that apologizing properly is ________.
A a social issue calling for immediate attention
B not necessary among family members
C a sign of social progress
D not as simple as it seems

Passage 3

  Interest in pursuing international careers has soared in recent years, enhanced by chronic (长久的) personnel shortages that are causing companies to search beyond their home borders for talent.
  Professionals seek career experience outside of their home countries for a variety of reasons. They may feel the need to recharge their batteries with a new challenge. They may want a position with more responsibility that encourages creativity and initiative. Or they may wish to expose their children to another culture, and the opportunity to learn a second language.
  When applying for a job, one usually has to submit a resume or curriculum vitae (CV). The two terms generally mean the same thing: a one-or two-page document describing one’s educational qualifications and professional experience. However, guidelines for preparing a resume are constantly changing. The best advice is to find out what is appropriate regarding the corporate (公司) culture, the country culture, and the culture of the person making the hiring decision. The challenge will be to embrace two or more cultures in one document. The following list is a good place to start.
  “Educational requirements differ from country to country. In almost every case of ‘cross-border’ job hunting, just stating the title of your degree will not be an adequate description. Provide the reader with details about your studies and any related experience.”
  Pay attention to the resume format you use-chronological or reverse-chronological order. Chronological order means listing your ‘oldest’ work experience first. Reverse-chronological order means listing your current or most recent experience first. Most countries have preferences about which format is most acceptable. If you find no specific guidelines, the general preference is for the reverse-chronological format.”
  If you are submitting your resume in English, find out if the recipient (收件人) uses British English or American English because there are variations between the two versions. For example, university education is often referred to as ‘tertiary education’ in the United Kingdom, but this term is almost never used in the United States. A reader who is unfamiliar with these variations may assume that your resume contains errors.

  1.pursue v.追求,追捕,继续执行,从事
  2.soar vi.翱翔,高飞,猛增,高涨
  3.enhance vt.提高,增加
  4.personnel n.职员,人事部门
  5.border n.边界
  6.variety n.各种各样
  7.recharge vt.重新充电
  8.initiative n.首创精神,主动性;adj.创始的,初步的,自发的
  9.submit vt.使屈服,提交,递交,vi.屈从(to)
  10.resume v.重新开始,再继续n.简历,履历
  11.qualification n.资格,限制,资历
  12.appropriate a.合适的
  13.embrace vt.包括;拥抱
  14.adequate a.充足的
  15.format  n.格式;样式
  16.chronological adj.按时间顺序的
  17.reverse-chronological 反时间顺序的
  18.preference n.偏好
  19.recipient n.收件人
  20.variation n.变种,变动,变化
  21.tertiary education第三教育
  22.assume v假定;承担
11 . Companies are hiring more foreign employees because ________.
A they find foreign employees are usually more talented
B they need original ideas from employees hired overseas
C they want to expand their business beyond home borders
D they have difficulty finding qualified personnel at home
12 . The author believes that an individual who applies to work overseas ________.
A is usually creative and full of initiative
B aims to improve his foreign language skills
C is dissatisfied with his own life at home
D seeks either his own or his children’s development
13 . When it comes to resume writing, it is best to ________.
A take cultural factors into consideration
B learn about the company’s hiring process
C follow appropriate guidelines for job hunting
D know the employer’s personal likes and dislikes
14 . When writing about qualifications, applicants are advised to ________.
A stress their academic potential to impress the decision maker
B give the title of the university degree they have earned at home
C provide a detailed description of their study and work experiences
D highlight their keen interest in pursuing a ‘cross-border’ career
15 . According to the author’s last piece of advice, the applicants should be aware of ________.
A the different educational systems in the US and the UK
B the differences between the varieties of English
C the recipient’s preference with regard to the format
D the distinctive features of American and British cultures
Passage 1
Passage 2
Passage 3